Forest ecology studies the relationship between forest phytocoenosis () and the environment, forests and environment in a broader context. The object of ecology are also certain types of wood and non-plants and other forest organisms. Thus, forest ecology includes both -logic (forest and environment) and autekologicheskie (individual species and environment) aspects. Wood – a natural unity, part of which is and the environment. Therefore, Department of Environment and Forests here is somewhat arbitrary, but it is necessary for the gradual disclosure of forward and backward linkages that determine the vitality of the forest and the nature of the forest environment. In forest ecology can consider two aspects: 1 – the impact of environmental factors on the life of the forest, 2 – ecological importance and influence of the forest on the environment, as well as special education, his usual forest environment. In the second case in question: the the impact of the forest beyond the space occupied by woods ("the" impact of the forest) on the impact on its own environment within which he occupied the space.
Thus, forest ecology examines the role of environment in the life of the forest as a natural unity, part of which is this Wednesday. On the other hand, it examines the environmental changes taking place under the influence of the developing nature of unity, which is the forest. All variety of environmental factors determining the growth conditions of the forest, his life and development, can be reduced to several groups: I. Climatic factors, including radiation, teschyuvoy, water regimes, composition and movement of air, etc. ii. Edaphic and orographic factors (soil, soil, terrain features, slope and exposure of slopes). iii.Bioticheskie factors (animals, plants, microorganisms). iv.
Anthropogenic factors. V. Historical factors. Environmental factors influence both on the forest as a whole and its individual components. In nature, there exists a complex influence of environmental factors, shown in various combinations. Change in one factor implies change the other. For example, a change in altitude, exposure, slope angle causes changes in climate, soil and other factors. Changing the lighting conditions in the forest accompanied by a change and thermal regime. The same amount of rainfall in the northern boreal regions and in some southern steppe regions. However, in the first case it falls in the prevalence of low temperatures, high humidity air and soil, at a reduced evaporation of moisture, in the second – the reverse combination. Hence – the conditions and the possible existence of forest at the same rainfall. In one case, the arborist has to contend with excess moisture, with the threat of waterlogging in the other – to seek means of increasing the moisture control soil salinity, etc. Thus, the forest is under the complex, intertwined influence of various multilateral environmental factors. Formed under the influence of geological, climatic, soil, biotic factors, the forest, in turn, itself influenced by these factors, it creates inherent in a particular environment. Consequently, the forest, affecting the environment changing it, he feels the effects of changes of environment. This environment is increasingly important for humans, not only locally but also in a global context, if you remember about the forest as an essential part of the biosphere. Despite the long-term study of forest interactions with the environment in many countries, science has not solved a lot of forest ecology, which must be one of the important scientific basis for the issue of "Forest and Man."